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Assessment and comprehension of fluid intake patterns worldwide are important from a public health perspective.
On one hand, volume of total fluid intake (e.g. sum of water intake and intake of all other beverages) and hydration biomarkers have been linked to cognitive performance and more and more to health outcomes such as decline in kidney function, kidney stones recurrence, development of hyperglycemia, and prevalence of some components of the metabolic syndrome [1-5].
On the other hand, some fluid types have been linked to adverse health outcome such as weight gain, overweight, obesity, the development of a metabolic syndrome and type 2-diabetes [6-11].
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Check out the latest features of the Liq.In7 interactive map:
Liq.In7: a unique database
The Liq.In7 surveys are conducted in a harmonized way across 3 continents (e.g. Europe, South America and Asia) and assess the local drinking habits of a representative sample of adults [12-16], adolescents and children [15-19].
The results of these surveys are published in the European Journal of Nutrition. A first supplement was published in 2015 and proposes an overview of fluid intake patterns in 15 countries across 3 continents . A second supplement, published in 2018, focuses on the assessment of fluid intake behavior in Asian and Latin American countries based on the latest surveys conducted in 2016 (Indonesia, China, Argentina, Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil) .
- 15 countries
- 17674 adults (≥ 18 years)
- 3869 adolescents (10 - 18 years)
- 2600 kids (4 - 9 years)
- 169 000 days of recording
The assessment of fluid intake was performed through a validated 7-day fluid specific record . This 7-day fluid record was shown to be highly accurate: the mean difference between the volume recorded with the 7-day fluid record and the volume calculated with an objective biomarker (deuterium labeled water) was merely the volume of a small glass (130 mL). Moreover, the 7-day fluid record is reliable. The average difference observed between fluid intake recordings performed on 2 separate weeks was only 72 mL/d.
For the analysis, the different fluid types were grouped into 8 classes:
- Water: tap and bottled water
- Milk and milk derivatives
- Hot beverages: coffee, tea and other hot beverages
- Sugar sweetened beverages: carbonated soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and other sugared soft drinks (flavored waters, ready to drink tea and coffee)
- Artificial/non-nutritive sweeteners beverages: diet/zero carbonated soft drinks, other diet soft drinks
- Alcoholic drinks
- Other beverages
Two beverage categories were updated in the second supplement:
- 100% Juices (in replacement of “Juices”): natural juice (vegetable/fruit), bottled 100% fruit juice & vegetables juice, homemade freshly squeezed juice, ready to drink freshly squeezed juice, freshly squeezed juice "take from outside.
- Sugar sweetened beverages, now integrating juice-based drinks: carbonated soft drinks (CSDs), juice-based drinks, functional beverages such as energy and sports drinks, ready to drink tea and coffee and flavored water
- Curhan, G.C., et al., Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones. Am J Epidemiol, 1996. 143(3): p. 240-7.Curhan, G.C., et al., Beverage use and risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med, 1998. 128(7): p. 534-40.
- Clark WF, Sontrop JM, Macnab JJ, Suri RS, Moist L, Salvadori M, Garg AX (2011) Urine volume and change in estimated GFR in a community-based cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 6:2634–2641
- Roussel R, Fezeu L, Bouby N, Balkau B, Lantieri O, Alhenc-Gelas F, Marre M, Bankir L (2011) Low water intake and risk for new-onset hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 34:2551–2554
- Enhörning S, Struck J, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Morgenthaler NG, Melander O (2011) Plasma copeptin, a unifying factor behind the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96:E1065–E1072
- Roussel R, El Boustany R, Bouby N, Potier L, Fumeron F, Mohammedi K, Balkau B, 351 Tichet J, Bankir L, Marre M, et al. Plasma Copeptin, AVP Gene Variants, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Cohort From the Community. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016;101(6):2432-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-1113.
- Guelinckx I, Vecchio M, Perrier ET, Lemetais G (2016) Fluid Intake and Vasopressin: Connecting the Dots. Ann Nutr Metab 68 Suppl 2:6-11
- Trumbo PR, Rivers CR (2014) Systematic review of the evidence for an association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and risk of obesity. Nutr Rev 72:566–574
- Malik VS, Pan A, Willett WC, Hu FB (2013) Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 98:1084–1102.
- Pan A, Malik VS, Hao T, Willett WC, Mozaffarian D, Hu FB (2013) Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies. Int J Obes (Lond) 37:1378–1385.
- Barrio-Lopez MT, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Fernandez-Montero A, Beunza JJ, Zazpe I, Bes-Rastrollo M (2013) Prospective study of changes in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and its components: the SUN cohort. Br J Nutr 110:1722–1731.
- Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Despres JP, Willett WC, Hu FB (2010) Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 33:2477–2483
- Guelinckx I, et al. (2015) Intake of water and different beverages in adults across 13 countries. Eur J Nutr. 54 Suppl (2):S45-S55. https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-015-0952-8
- Ferreira-Pêgo, C., et al. (2015). "Total fluid intake and its determinants: cross-sectional surveys among adults in 13 countries worldwide." Eur J Nutr 54(2): 35-43. https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-015-0943-9
- Martinez, H., et al. (2018). "Fluid intake of Latin American adults: results of four 2016 Liq.In7 national cross-sectional surveys." Eur J Nutr 57(3): 65-75. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-018-1724-z
- Zhang, N., et al. (2018). "Fluid intake in urban China: results of the 2016 Liq.In7national cross-sectional surveys." Eur J Nutr 57(3): 77-88. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-018-1755-5
- Laksmi, P. W., et al. (2018). "Fluid intake of children, adolescents and adults in Indonesia: results of the 2016 Liq.In7 national cross-sectional survey." Eur J Nutr 57(3): 89-100. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-018-1740-z
- Guelinckx I, et al. (2015) Intake of water and beverages of children and adolescents in 13 countries. Eur J Nutr. 54 Suppl (2):S69-S79. https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-015-0955-5
- Iglesia, I., et al. (2015). "Total fluid intake of children and adolescents: cross-sectional surveys in 13 countries worldwide." Eur J Nutr 54(2): 57-67 https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-015-0946-6
- Gandy, J., et al. (2018). "Fluid intake of Latin American children and adolescents: results of four 2016 LIQ.IN7National Cross-Sectional Surveys." Eur J Nutr 57(3): 53-63. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00394-018-1728-8
- König, J., Stookey J.D., (2015). Assessment of Fluid Intake Across Countries Around the World: Methodological and Public Health Implications, Springer. https://rd.springer.com/journal/394/54/2/suppl/page/1
- J. König, Stookey, J. D. (2018). "Assessment of Fluid Intake Behavior in Asian and Latin American Countries with a Focus on Children and Adolescents." Eur J Nutr Volume 57 (Issue 3 Supplement). https://link.springer.com/journal/394/57/3/suppl/page/1
- Johnson, E.C., et al., Validation Testing Demonstrates Efficacy of a 7-Day Fluid Record to Estimate Daily Water Intake in Adult Men and Women When Compared with Total Body Water Turnover Measurement. J Nutr, 2017.