Assessment and comprehension of fluid intake patterns worldwide are important from a public health perspective.
On one hand, volume of total fluid intake (e.g. sum of water intake and intake of all other beverages) and hydration biomarkers have been linked to cognitive performance and more and more to health outcomes such as decline in kidney function, kidney stones recurrence, development of hyperglycemia, and prevalence of some components of the metabolic syndrome [1-5].
On the other hand, some fluid types have been linked to adverse health outcome such as weight gain, overweight, obesity, the development of a metabolic syndrome and type 2-diabetes [6-11].
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Liq.In7: a unique database
The Liq.In7 surveys are conducted in a harmonized way across 3 continents (e.g. Europe, South America and Asia) and assess the local drinking habits of a representative sample of adults [12-16], adolescents and children [15-19].
The results of these surveys are published in the European Journal of Nutrition. A first supplement was published in 2015 and proposes an overview of fluid intake patterns in 15 countries across 3 continents . A second supplement, published in 2018, focuses on the assessment of fluid intake behavior in Asian and Latin American countries based on the latest surveys conducted in 2016 (Indonesia, China, Argentina, Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil) .
- 15 countries
- 17674 adults (≥ 18 years)
- 3869 adolescents (10 - 18 years)
- 2600 kids (4 - 9 years)
- 169 000 days of recording
The assessment of fluid intake was performed through a validated 7-day fluid specific record . This 7-day fluid record was shown to be highly accurate: the mean difference between the volume recorded with the 7-day fluid record and the volume calculated with an objective biomarker (deuterium labeled water) was merely the volume of a small glass (130 mL). Moreover, the 7-day fluid record is reliable. The average difference observed between fluid intake recordings performed on 2 separate weeks was only 72 mL/d.
For the analysis, the different fluid types were grouped into 8 classes:
- Water: tap and bottled water
- Milk and milk derivatives
- Hot beverages: coffee, tea and other hot beverages
- Sugar sweetened beverages: carbonated soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and other sugared soft drinks (flavored waters, ready to drink tea and coffee)
- Artificial/non-nutritive sweeteners beverages: diet/zero carbonated soft drinks, other diet soft drinks
- Alcoholic drinks
- Other beverages
Two beverage categories were updated in the second supplement:
- 100% Juices (in replacement of “Juices”): natural juice (vegetable/fruit), bottled 100% fruit juice & vegetables juice, homemade freshly squeezed juice, ready to drink freshly squeezed juice, freshly squeezed juice "take from outside.
- Sugar sweetened beverages, now integrating juice-based drinks: carbonated soft drinks (CSDs), juice-based drinks, functional beverages such as energy and sports drinks, ready to drink tea and coffee and flavored water